A normal prime
I suggest you try one of these lenses on your photographic journey. They are called normal lenses because they have a field of view that looks natural through the viewfinder. Usually the focal length is 50mm on 35mm film or a full frame sensor, but you may find a 40 or a 55mm lens to be also considered as normal. A normal lens is also a prime or fixed lens that means it has a fixed focal length as opposed to a zoom lens.
Nikon offers two main choices for full-frame cameras at this time, the Nikkor AF-S 50mm f/1.8G and the Nikkor AF-S 50mm f/1.4G. Both are about the same size and weight, though the 50mm 1:1.4 does weigh a little more because of more glass elements inside, it has a rounded 9-blade diaphragm, a really fast autofocus and one step faster aperture.
The more blades in a diaphragm, the more pleasant the bokeh. Users of a DX camera, be aware of the fact that a smaller sensor will change a 50mm lens to a 75mm, therefore you should look for a wider lens, a good choice is a 35mm lens available in both 1:1.4 and 1:1.8 version.
For the cameras with smaller sensors a 35mm lens is the prime lens. Mathematically correct it is a 33mm (33 x 1.5 ≅ 50), but Nikon doesn't offer a lens with this focal length (FYI: Sigma does a decent 30mm 1:1.4 DC lens). I recommend the AF-S Nikkor 35mm 1:1.8 G DX for a beginner, because it's cheap, very sharp and fast. You may experience that the optical performance of a prime lens is way better then of a zoom because it captures only a single field of view. A normal prime lens has nearly always a much faster aperture; most of them have an aperture from 1.2 to 2.8 whereas the zoom lenses begin mostly at 2.8 or even at 3.5. A fast aperture lets more light in, it is very useful in low light conditions and you can benefit from the possibility of a shallow depth of field by staying with a low ISO setting for noise-free images. Also you don't have to use a strobe flash frequently, because it can handle complicated indoor light situations. A shallow depth of field gives you the possibility to understand the basic composition rules, and play with that depth of field to get the desired objects into focus.
My personal experience is that photographers with meager equipment can experience many advantages, notably the users with smaller cameras. Men and women tend to act more straightforward when you point a small camera at them. In the moment they see a photographer with a huge glass eye mounted on a giant Nikon D4, it is the nature of people to over control their posture, alter their expressions and act unnaturally. Looking into a big lens is like staring into a deep abyss. I am glad I own a Nikon D3200, a small camera I can shoot barely noticed. People think of me as an ordinary amateur photo-guy who does some funny pictures for himself. It makes them act more open and patient. You might have better chances to capture unique moments and naturally acting people with a small Nikon, compared to photographers with their expensive equipment, professionals or not.
(Although Nikonians founder Bo Stahlbrandt pointed out, that a larger camera might give you a free pass to take pictures together with professional photographers on special events. Well, I have to try that on the next occasion, thanks for the tip, Bo.)
The good news is a normal prime lens isn’t that expensive, some of them are relatively cheap because of a simpler construction. The AF-S Nikkor 35mm 1:1.8 G DX or the AF-S Nikkor 50mm 1:1.8 G are a bargain.
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