Long Exposure Noise Reduction turned on activates at exposures of 1 second and longer. The default should be ON because this cannot be easily duplicated in post. The main reason for turning it OFF is cycle time because it subtracts an exposure of equal time to the original exposure. This setting has changed from activating at 8 seconds to 1 second over the last few camera generations with smaller pixels.
Active D Lighting adds value if you shoot JPEGs or process with Nikon software or other programs that recognize the camera settings. ADL does two things - it applies a curve to recover shadows and protect highlights, and it may apply an exposure adjustment. I found in testing the curve is tough to replicate in post, and it can be turned off or changed to a higher level in post with Nikon Capture. The exposure adjustment is baked in and the amount depends on the ADL setting. ADL Low has no adjustment and is harmless. ADL Medium, High ,and Extra High reduce exposure by 0.3 stops for each increment up to a full stop. With Lightroom or other programs that do not honor the camera settings, ADL just adjusts exposure (unless you choose Low). My setting is normally to set it on Low or Off because it does not adjust exposure and retains the ability to make changes in post. And of course, these settings do affect the histogram and embedded JPEG.
High ISO noise reduction can largely be replaced in post with more control so I generally leave it off. High ISO NR softens the image - sometimes more than desired.