Any camera that has a non-apochromatic lens exhibit this problem. Color wavelength differences create different focus convergence position when passing through lenses commonly seen as color fringing. Color temperature affects focus in a similar way, since the path through the lens, the mirror and focusing sensors changes with wavelength, but to a lesser extent, although enough to see in with a high enough resolution sensor like the D800. Your D300 no doubt does not have the resolution to see it. There are lenses designed to pass the visible spectrum with equal diffraction but they are expensive and limited production, mostly for astronomy and cinematography. It is not a new concept, it dates back to the mid-1700's when the first wavelength corrected lenses were developed.
Regarding the problem camera at had, there is not enough information to draw any meaningful conclusions yet, or even whether the problem even is in the camera. Stan St Petersburg Russia