In 2005 (I was using either a D80 or D300) I did a day's shooting at Grand Canyon. I was using a top of the line--at the time--Lexar CF. Most of the files on that CF were corrupt. The ones that I could read showed parts of multiple shots on one image. I sent the CF to Lexar, and they recovered most of the images.
I did not have the funky color problem. To me that would suggest either a failing CF, buffer problems, connection problems, etc. Not sure that there is any software that could reconstruct your images without the color striations.
I am assuming from the image content that you were not using a high frame rate, which might eliminate buffer problems being the culprit.
How many actuations on this D300. What is the brand and model of your CF?
I always use either top of the line SanDisk or Lexar CF/SD/SDHC, etc. It amazes me how much many on here spend for their camera bodies, lenses, tripods, heads, brackets, grips, etc. and then scrimp on memory cards. I have never had another problem since 2005. Just knocked on wood.