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Camera Reviews How-to's

Learn the basis about the Multi-CAM 2000 Autofocus (AF) sensor module

Darrell Young (DigitalDarrell) on May 17, 2006


Keywords: nikon, d2h, d2x, f6, fundamentals, camera, basics, guides, tips, tricks

INTRODUCTION

Back in the good old days of manual focusing cameras you had to turn the lens ring until the subject looked sharp. If you weren’t fast enough, well, there was always the next frame.

Nowadays, our cameras are getting smarter and smarter. So many things can be well accomplished by camera automation, including autofocus, that it is now easier than ever to get professional results.

 

Nikon D2H, D2Hs, F6 and D2X cameras

 

The Multi-CAM 2000 Autofocus (AF) sensor module in the Nikon D2H, D2Hs, F6, and Nikon D2x gives us a powerful tool for professional or advanced amateur use. But, it’s imperative that the user of these fine cameras take the time to learn about the four modes of operation in Multi-CAM 2000. It can seem complicated when reading the manual, but is not too difficult if you’ll spend a little time testing the various modes. Then you’ll understand the best settings for your own style of photography.

We’ll discuss Multi-CAM 2000 from the standpoint of the Nikon D2x, since this is considered Nikon’s top professional model digital camera. There are some slight variances in custom settings found in the other cameras using Multi-CAM 2000. But, these are only minor differences, so it should pose no problem using this article to understand Multi-CAM 2000 in cameras other than the Nikon D2x.

It may be a good idea to have your Nikon D2x manual in hand, as well as your camera. We’ll refer to both often in this article. Let’s proceed!

 

 


WHAT IS THE NIKON MULTI-CAM 2000 AUTOFOCUS?

It’s a radically improved version of the famous Nikon Multi-CAM 1300 autofocus module found in the Nikon F5 35mm film SLR. Where the Multi-CAM 1300 was limited to only Single Area AF and Dynamic Area AF, the Multi-CAM 2000 adds two more modes and several more AF sensors. The new modes are Group Dynamic AF and Dynamic Area with Closest Subject Priority.

While the Multi-CAM 1300 had five AF sensors, the Multi-CAM 2000 gives us eleven.

And, the center nine of the eleven are cross-type sensors which work in either horizontal or vertical camera positions.

Why is it called Multi-CAM 2000? Well, like the older “1300” before it, the number 2000 represents the approximate number of CCD elements in the autofocus system. With so many elements it will autofocus in very low light levels, and at very high speeds. It’s a true world-class AF system, unmatched by any other camera brand.


WHAT IS FOCUS LOCK?

Let’s start our exploration of the Multi-CAM 2000 system by looking at some basic information that many of us may not fully understand.

One question often asked is, “What does it mean to lock focus?” That's a great question since it involves how the camera decides when a picture can be taken, and what AF modes you’ll find most useful.

 

© Jason Odell
Nikon D2X digital SLR camera image by Dr. Jason Odell (DrJay32)

 

If a subject is moving, the camera will use two technologies to track it. They're called Predictive Focus Tracking® and Focus Tracking with Lock-On®. More about them later.

Using these technologies, the camera detects that the subject is moving in the few milliseconds that autofocus is in action. According to whether it's in “single-focus” AF-S mode (Single Servo AF) or “constant-focus” AF-C mode (Continuous Servo AF) two distinct events will occur.

 

Single Servo AF: In this case, the autofocus system sees subject movement and does not “lock” the focus until the subject stops moving. When the subject stops the focus “locks.” Once this lock takes place, the little round green light comes on in the viewfinder, and autofocus activity ceases. You must reactivate autofocus by lifting your finger and reapplying pressure. The focus is truly locked and will not try to follow your subject unless you refocus. To follow a moving subject requires you to tap the shutter button as the subject moves.

Continuous Servo AF: When using this mode the autofocus never “locks” at all. Your camera will capture images with three levels of focus accuracy, according to how you have the AF “priority” set. (Priorities: FPS rate, FPS rate + AF, and Focus) We'll discuss these later on.

 

Many photographers use a method of shooting best called “Focus and Recompose.” A good example of this is photographing a couple of friends who are standing a couple of feet apart. The photographer, using AF-S mode, moves his camera so that the selected AF sensor is pointing at the face of one of the friends. He locks the focus by holding pressure on the shutter button, moves the camera to the composition that looks best, and then snaps the picture.

 

 

As long as the photographer holds pressure on the shutter button, the camera will not try to refocus, since the focus is “locked.” When he presses the shutter button the rest of the way, firing the shutter, the camera will not try to refocus on the background between the friends.

How many of us have pictures of a perfectly focused background with two friends blurred and out of focus? I'll never admit it, but I sure do! (huh?) Using AF-S and the “Focus and Recompose method” makes this problem unlikely to happen.

So, remember this. Once autofocus “locks” it stops working until you release pressure from the shutter button. This is perfect for non-moving subjects, or even slowly moving subjects.

If your subject never stops moving, is moving erratically, or only stops briefly, AF-S is probably not the best mode to use. Then AF-C is better, since it never locks focus and you can better follow movement.

So, “locking focus” simply means that the autofocus system is finished doing its job, and is waiting for you to conclude by taking the picture. This only applies to Single Servo AF (AF-S) mode.


RELEASE PRIORITY VS. FOCUS PRIORITY

First, let's consider a couple of custom settings that cause more users to get slightly out-of-focus images than might be believed. They're Custom Settings “a1” and “a2,” which set the camera to either FOCUS PRIORITY or RELEASE PRIORITY. These apply to AF-C or Continuous Servo AF and AF-S or Single Servo AF. AF-C uses custom setting a1, while AF-S uses a2.

 

Click for enlargement
Rufous Hummingbird by Nikonian Ron Green
D2X + 600mm Nikkor, f/11 @ 1/250, ISO 320, external strobes

 

FOCUS PRIORITY simply means that your camera will refuse to take a picture until it can reasonably focus on something.

RELEASE PRIORITY means that the camera will take a picture when you decide to take it, WHETHER ANYTHING IS IN FOCUS OR NOT! (Read the last paragraph again, until it sinks in)

Now, you might ask yourself “why is there such a setting as Release Priority?” Well, many photographers are shooting high-speed events at high-frame rates, taking hundreds of images, and are using depth-of-field (or experience and luck) to compensate for less than accurate focus. They are in complete control of their camera’s systems, having a huge amount of practice in getting just what they want from their cameras.

And, for many pro photographers, the camera’s choice of focus points are not what the photographer wants the camera to focus on, so they override the focus using various means.

 

 

Here is a quote from a professional D2x user on why he rarely uses Focus Priority:

 

“I want what I want in focus and not what the camera wants in focus. Let me give you a few examples. Many times, the part of an open wheel race car which has the most ‘edges’ for the camera’s brain to focus on, is the nose and front wing with all of the decals and sponsor’s names and suspension parts. Many times, what I want in focus is the helmet. A lot of times, if you are in “focus priority mode” the camera will not fire when it is focused on the helmet… I do not want the camera to tell me I can’t take a picture when what I want to be in focus is in focus, even though it may not be what the camera thinks should be in focus. I want to be able to take when I want to take, and I want what I WANT to be in focus.” John Cote

 

So, clearly there are very valid reasons for photographers to not use Focus Priority. But, most of those same photographers do not let the shutter release button start the autofocus either, since the focus would change every time the shutter button is pressed. These photographers usually set Custom Setting a5 so that the autofocus does not even activate until the AF-ON button is pressed. (see D2x manual page 185)

You need to ask yourself, “What type of a photographer am I?” If you are a pro shooting fast race cars, focus priority may not be for you. But, for the average photographer imaging his kids running around the yard, deer jumping a fence, flying birds, or a bride tossing a bouquet, Release Priority may not be the best choice. For many it is better to have the camera refuse to take the picture unless it is able to focus on your subject. For most then, Focus Priority is the best setting.


RELEASE PRIORITY VS. FOCUS PRIORITY (continues ...)

From my own testing with the D2x I find that Focus Priority almost always gives me well-focused pictures. When shooting quickly it may skip a series of out-of-focus ones, but I don’t want those anyway. Focus Priority will impair your camera’s frame rate, so that it will not reach the maximum 5 fps or 8 fps. But, I have to ask, what is the point of 10 out-of-focus images and 5 in-focus images? Why waste the card space, and then have to weed through the slightly out-of-focus images?

Click for enlargement
VW Passat Detail by Nikonian Michael Slade - Nikon D2X

 

In Figure 1 below are pictures of the series of menu screens used to set Release vs. Focus Priority.

For AF-C Mode using Custom Setting a1:

In AF-C mode and Custom Setting a1, “FPS rate” and “FPS rate + AF” are both forms of Release Priority, with “FPS rate + AF” giving “improved” autofocus while still allowing the image to be taken no matter what. For reliably sharp focus in AF-C mode, use Focus Priority. On this menu, it’s the bottom selection.

 

 

Now, let’s turn our attention to AF-S mode and Custom Setting a2. We need to verify whether Focus or Release Priority is set. Examine Figure 2 for the correct sequence of menu items.


For AF-S Mode using Custom Setting a2:

 

 

In figure 2, your choices are “Focus” and “Release.” Since the factory default is Focus Priority, it may already be set to “Focus.” If not, then select Focus.

 

Congratulations! Now your Nikon D2x is set up to take an image ONLY if it can focus on your subject.


PREDICTIVE FOCUS TRACKING VS. FOCUS TRACKING WITH LOCK-ON
(Custom Setting a4)

There is some confusion about the differences between Predictive Focus Tracking (manual page 73) and Focus Tracking with Lock-On (manual page 185). In fact, these are not the same technologies, but do work together to help you get well focused images.

 

PREDICTIVE FOCUS TRACKING …

…is a technology designed to help in instances when your subject is moving as you press the shutter button to actually take the picture. There’s a delay in the shutter actuation time of only a few milliseconds. This delay, though small, could tend to cause fast moving subjects to go out of focus by the time the shutter actually fires.

When you press the shutter button for autofocus the camera’s computer asks, “Is this subject moving?” Here’s what happens next:


AF-S (SINGLE SERVO AF MODE)

 

Subject is NOT moving: If not moving, it instantly LOCKS the focus on your subject, and waits for you to fire the shutter. If you do not release shutter button pressure, and your subject starts moving, your focus will be out of date and useless. Once you have focus lock, take the picture quickly.

Subject is moving: Predictive Focus Tracking figures out how far the subject will move before the shutter fires. Once you have pressed the shutter button all the way down it moves the lens elements slightly to correspond to where the subject should be when the shutter fires a few milliseconds later. In other words, it focuses slightly in front of your subject so that the shutter has time to open and get the shutter blades out of the way.

 

 

It takes 37 milliseconds for the camera to respond to pressing the shutter release. In 37 milliseconds a fast moving race car can slightly blur the focus by the time the shutter opens. If you press the shutter in one smooth motion all the way to shutter release, first autofocus occurs, then the shutter starts opening. In the time it takes for the camera to respond to your shutter release press, the car has moved slightly, which just barely throws the autofocus off. The camera’s computer predicts where the car will be when the picture is actually taken, and adjusts the focus accordingly.

A slightly gross comparison would be a hunter stalking a deer. Good hunters have learned to aim and shoot the gun slightly in front of the running deer so that the bullet and deer arrive in the same place at the same time. Predictive Focus Tracking does it for you so that you don’t have to focus your camera in front of your subject and wait 37 milliseconds for it to arrive. That would be a bit hard to time!

 

AF-C (CONTINUOUS SERVO AF MODE)

 

Since AF-C mode never “locks” the focus, it’s always ready to take a picture. It will focus on the subject as long as you hold the button down, but even small camera or subject movements will make it refocus over and over. You’ll hear the lens chatter as the focus stays on your subject, and constantly makes small adjustments. When you press the shutter button fully, the picture is taken in whatever the last focus position was. If you have Focus Priority set (custom settings a1 and a2), the image will be in focus, if you do not, it may not be.

 

Predictive Focus Tracking cannot be disabled by changing Custom Setting “a4” to off. That custom setting disables “Focus tracking with Lock-On”, a completely different technology. According to Nikon, Predictive Focus Tracking cannot be disabled ... period.

Lens movement, especially with long lenses, can be interpreted by the camera as subject movement. Predictive Focus Tracking, in that case, is tracking your camera movement while simultaneously trying to track your subject. Attempting to handhold a long lens will drive your camera NUTS, as it will you, when you later view the shaky pictures. Use a vibration reduction (VR) lens or a tripod for best results with Predictive Focus Tracking.

Nikon says that there are special algorithms in Predictive Focus Tracking that notice sideways movement, realize that you are panning, and shut down Predictive Focus tracking.

In fact, page 73 of the Nikon D2x manual says, "If the subject is moving toward or away from the camera, the camera will track focus while attempting to predict where the subject will be when the shutter is released." (italics mine)

Notice it says “toward or away,” which means Predictive Focus Tracking is not the best technology for sideways movement or panning.


FOCUS TRACKING WITH Lock-On® (custom setting a4) …

… is a technology designed with a completely different purpose in mind. It’s a focus algorithm that allows your D2x to lock focus on a subject and IGNORE ANYTHING THAT COMES BETWEEN THE CAMERA AND THE SUBJECT, while tracking where that subject is on the array of focus sensors. It’s best to use more than one sensor when using Focus Tracking with Lock-On. Dynamic Area AF will give you more accurate tracking of moving subjects. When you switch to AF-C mode, also get in the habit of switching to one of the Dynamic Area or Group Dynamic focusing modes.

Should I turn off custom setting a4, which disables the “Lock-On” functionality?

Some have claimed that this will improve the autofocus on the Nikon D2x. But, in my opinion this may not be entirely true! Custom setting a4 has little to do with HOW WELL the Nikon D2x focuses. Instead it is concerned with WHAT it is focused on.

We will discuss some of the controversial issues surrounding a4 towards the end of this article.

In the meantime, below are some good reasons to leave Custom Setting a4, “or Lock-On, enabled in your Nikon D2x.

© J. Ramon Palacios (jrp)
Nikon F6 sample by jrp

As we will consider below, Dynamic Area AF with Closest Subject Priority, with Lock-On disabled, will instantly react to something coming between your subject and the camera. By enabling custom setting a4, the camera will ignore anything that briefly gets between you and your subjects. If you turn a4 off and use Closest Subject Priority, your camera will happily switch focus to a closer subject, even if it only appears in the frame for a moment.

A good example of this is when you are tracking a moving subject, and just as you are about to snap the picture a closer object enters the edge of the frame and is picked up by an outside sensor. The camera will instantly switch focus to the intruding closer subject. If you turn off Custom Setting a4, that’s exactly what you’ll get; a camera that doesn't know how to keep its attention on the subject you are trying to photograph. I call turning off custom setting a4, “focus roulette!”


UNDERSTANDING SINGLE, DYNAMIC, AND GROUP AUTOFOCUS SETTINGS (a)

The D2x has an array of four different autofocus methods, and some differences in how they work between AF-S and AF-C modes. In figure 3 below we see an image of the AF Area Mode Selector switch on the back of the D2x. We’ll discuss each of the four settings in enough detail that you’ll feel more comfortable using the modes fitting your style of photography.

 

Spend a little time testing each of these AF modes, and in no time, you’ll feel comfortable with each of them. Then, at a moment’s notice, you‘ll know just which mode will best serve your purpose.

SINGLE AREA AUTOFOCUS

Most photographers are perfectly happy to use the simplest autofocus setting, “Single Area AF”
With this setting your camera locks on to slow moving and static subjects using a single focus area of the eleven available in the Nikon D2x.

Most use the center AF sensor, or toggle to other sensors with the multi-selector thumb switch. Others lock focus and then move the camera to the final composition before taking the picture. In figure 5 there’s a simplified example of a Nikon D2x focus screen with Single Area AF enabled, and the center AF sensor selected. The plus sign shows which sensor is in use, and the red bracket shows which sensor you have selected. Sometimes these are not the same, as we’ll see soon.

 

 

The multi-selector thumb toggle switch allows you to select any of the 11 sensors seen in figure 5. This mode works best for relatively static subjects, like nature, family snapshots, and slow moving wildlife. The sensor in use will briefly light up in red when first selected.

Single Area AF is great for the majority of photographers, and is quite easy to understand and use.

DYNAMIC AREA AUTOFOCUS

This is a very, uh, well, “dynamic” AF setting for the D2x user. It allows you to control the sensor focal point, like in Single Area AF, but gives you a margin of safety in case your subject moves out of range of the selected sensor. All the AF sensors are active, so the subject will be tracked by the other sensors as it moves across their areas.

Figure 7 is the simplified D2x screen to show how extensive the area of focus actually is.

Notice that ALL the 11 AF sensors are active and seeking a subject (see + signs). But, also notice how the center sensor is selected, as symbolized by the red bracket in the middle. You can move the primary focus area around at will, like in Single Area AF, but remember that ALL the sensors are active in case of quick movements.

It is important that you leave custom setting a4 turned on with this mode since, otherwise, any intruding subjects might get the camera’s attention. Remember, setting a4 controls Focus Tracking with Lock-On. If you were focused on a squirrel walking along the ground, and a big bird landed behind him, the D2x might just decide it likes the bird better and switch focus. Lock-On (a4) prevents that from happening by forcing the D2x to track the subject you first focused on.

Since Dynamic Area AF is truly dynamic, it sees any high-contrast subject in any of the 11 focus areas as fair game for autofocusing upon, even though you have a different sensor selected with the thumb switch. It doesn't matter if the new subject is in front of or behind the old subject. If it has more contrast, or is larger and brighter, the D2x will eagerly seek to change to that new subject. By leaving custom setting a4 set to ON, the D2x is much smarter and tracks your real subject until it leaves the frame, or you take the picture.


UNDERSTANDING SINGLE, DYNAMIC, AND GROUP AUTOFOCUS SETTINGS (b)

 

GROUP DYNAMIC AUTOFOCUS

With Group Dynamic AF, you’ll select the sensor you want to use and the D2x will use it as the primary focus sensor. It’s somewhat similar to Single Area AF, except that the immediately surrounding sensors are also active. This allows some erratic movement from your subject, as long as the movement is not too large.

You can move the cross-shaped group of sensor groupings around with the thumb toggle switch.

In figure 9 we see another simplified image of the focus area in use. Dynamic Area AF, and the center AF sensor is selected: (see page 77 of manual).

This works a lot like Dynamic Area AF, except that the active sensors are in a movable cross shaped pattern. This mode is best for erratically moving subjects that do not move very far. Maybe you are shooting an ant crawling around on a flower. He keeps moving, but your camera is bolted down to the tripod. This allows the camera to keep close focus on a small area, while allowing the subject to move around within that area.

 

 

Many sports photographers use this mode for sports shooting. It allows an area around the primary focus point to stay active, which helps track a moving person, but not all AF sensors are in use which might tend to pull the autofocus to another unintended person moving nearby.

There is another custom setting in the D2x that applies directly to this mode. Custom Setting a3 modifies how your Group Dynamic AF works. This setting allows you to be very precise in using individual groups of AF sensors by using selectable “sensor patterns.” In figure 10 below, we see a series of pictures of the menu screens used to set a3:

In figure 11 let’s examine Custom Setting a3’s patterns. First let’s look at Pattern 1 and discuss how it works:

In figure 11, pattern 1 at left has a cross-shaped arrangement. The center AF sensor is providing primary initial focus (sensor in red), while the surrounding sensors (see + signs) are active and awaiting the subject’s movement. If the subject moves out from under the center sensor, the surrounding sensors will track the focus. You’ll not be able to see which sensor is actually tracking the focus when your subject leaves the sensor you first started using. It would be nice if Nikon turned the sensor red as a new sensor starts detecting focus, but that’s not the way it works in this camera. This is the factory default setting for the D2x in Group Dynamic AF mode.

The second pattern, at right in Figure 11, shows the Closest Subject focus arrangement. It is exactly the same as in Center Focus, except that ALL the sensors in red are used together. You will not be able to select or determine which sensor is initially providing focus, or which is tracking focus. The camera focuses on the closest subject with enough contrast to provide a good focus.


UNDERSTANDING SINGLE, DYNAMIC, AND GROUP AUTOFOCUS SETTINGS (c)


Now, let’s look at figure 12 and Pattern 2 of Group Dynamic Custom Setting a3:

In figure 12, Pattern 2, you will see a smaller pattern than the cross-arrangement in Pattern 1. Instead of a cross shape, the camera provides either a vertical or horizontal line pattern. I have only included the horizontal view in my illustration above. (See page 184 of your D2x manual for a view of both horizontal and vertical patterns.)

 

 

Pattern 2 works exactly like Pattern 1 except there are fewer sensors involved. (see + signs). This pattern allows you very fine control of the tracking of moving subjects in a horizontal or vertical direction. Remember, you can move these patterns around with the multi-selector thumb rocker switch.

 

DYNAMIC AREA AUTOFOCUS WITH CLOSEST FOCUS PRIORITY

Remember how the Dynamic Area Focus worked? If a bird landed BEHIND your squirrel, the D2x may decide it likes the bird better? Well, this version of Dynamic Area AF uses Close Focus Priority to completely ignore any objects or people behind your primary subjects.

You have NO control of what sensor is in use, and no indication in the focus screen. The camera focuses on whatever is closest and/or brightest in the viewfinder.

Figure 14 is a simplified D2x screen that represents the focus sensors in use in this mode. Notice that no one particular sensor has the initial focus:

This mode is great for snapshooting, or for group shots, or any time you don’t want to make any focusing decisions, yet still want great pictures. One of my favorite reasons for using it is the old two person background gap problem we discussed before. How many of us have beautiful pictures of the background, while the two people we wanted to take a picture of are completely out of focus? When you focused your camera, YOU were looking at the people, but the camera sees the gap between them, and a nice bright something in the background. Voila, ruined picture!

Close Focus Priority pretty much eliminates that problem, since the subjects are closer than the background. But, what happens when someone walks between you and your subjects? Do you want the camera to focus on the new closer subject? Not usually! So, it is also important that custom setting a4 is left ON with this AF mode. Focus Tracking with Lock-On prevents anything that might move in front of our “locked on” subject from interfering with our focus.

One important note, the Nikon D2x manual on page 77 states the following: “Camera may be unable to select focus area containing closest subject when telephoto lens is used or subject is poorly lit. Single-area AF is recommended in these cases.”

So, all you birders, wildlife shooters, and sports photographers out there take heed. It may not be a good idea to use Closest Focus Priority with your big telephoto lenses, unless the subject has very high contrast. Be forewarned! Why not try regular Dynamic Area AF instead.


CUSTOM SETTING a4 “Lock-On®” – DOES IT WORK?

There are many reports floating around the internet about Custom Setting a4, however no explanations about how come turning it off could sometimes make the Nikon D2x focus better than before.

Click for enlargement
"Flying V" by Oliver Kuerten (inselney)

 

If you read posts or even articles proclaiming that it’s best to turn off a4, and they offer nothing more than a mystery as to why, just re-read the above reasons for not turning it off. In fact, turning off a4 will “dumb down” your otherwise smart Nikon D2x, and actually cause some of the problems people are trying to prevent by turning it off.

But, I must add that many people have written me with experiences that seem to indicate that they have personally had better results with a4 turned off. I have thought about this a lot, and have come to some conclusions (opinions) why this might be true for them, or you. Read my opinions, test for yourself, and you decide.

 

One experienced Nikonian and Nikon D2x user wrote:

 

“When shooting macros there's little chance of anything getting between you and your subject. Removing the slight delay that appears to be present with a4 on, when your subject can abruptly change direction (for example a bee in flight at a flower), seems to reduce the chance of the camera not responding at the crucial moment because the focus isn't quite on the subject. It also depends on how you've set Custom Setting a1.” Alan Clifton (AlanC)

 

Does a4 slows down the camera? I think this is a strong possibility, since it makes the camera “think” harder as it is tracking your subject. You’ll have to judge for yourself whether that small speed decrease affects YOUR photography. If it does, turn a4 off.

Dynamic Area AF is designed to use multiple sensors to track a subject that is "moving erratically." ALL SENSORS ARE ACTIVELY SEEKING A SUBJECT AT THE SAME TIME, but only ONE is doing the tracking. (see manual page 73) Since we have Predictive Focus tracking, and Tracking with Lock-On, the D2x will tend to stay with the subject, unless it’s having problems due to the subject blending in with the background.

If the subject is rather low-contrast, enters a dark area, etc. it is entirely possible that the Nikon D2x will switch focus points to a higher contrast area. I think that this has been well borne out by many actual users who are trying to photograph birds flying in a confusing background.

 

 

It is also true that many animals have colorations that tend to blend in with their environments. If they didn't their life spans would be much shorter. If an animal’s fur or feathers looks like grass and trees, how successful do you think any camera will be at picking it out from the background? Not very, I’am afraid. And the problem is compounded, I am afraid, by the big size of the AF sensors in the Nikon D2x. They exceed the edges of the AF sensor points in the viewfinder by at least 50% surrounding the sensor.

If you are focusing on a rapidly moving bird, colored like the background, and only covering part of a sensor, it is going to be VERY difficult, or impossible for the Nikon D2x to track it well. So, it can be hard to keep the subject in focus even using all the technology that Nikon can throw at it.

I think that the good results some are having in tracking a bird against an open sky, and less accurate tracking against trees and such shows that NO autofocus system can be as accurate as the human eye. The camera’s autofocus system is contrast based, and if contrast gets weak or everything is of similar contrast autofocus does not work well.

I once read an article about the first computer that they were able to program to use a video input to identify objects. They set up a series of objects like blocks, teacups, and such, on a rotating table and passed the objects one at a time in front of the camera. The computer was supposed to identify the object. They finally got the computer to identify an object ... the teacup. Everyone was very happy. The only problem was the computer had to study the object for TEN MINUTES to do so. Of course, technology has improved a thousand-fold since then.

The article interviewed the scientist conducting the artificial intelligence experiments, and asked him what the main problem was in getting the computer to recognize the object. He said, "Well, it has a hard time figuring out where the object ends and the background begins." Does that sound familiar?

Today, we have a computer (D2x) with a built-in lens, which is basically doing object tracking. But, sometimes it has a problem figuring out where the object ends and the background begins.

We all know that CONTRAST is king here. If we shoot birds flying against a blue sky, then, OF COURSE there will be a better response from the camera if a4 (Lock-On) is turned off. With a4 off, the camera/computer is simply not concerned with staying locked-on to a particular subject, and since you are giving it an easy to follow subject with high contrast, the camera will react faster with a4 turned off. Less processing is involved.

But, put that same subject in a low contrast environment, like a bird flying in front of trees, and whooeeee the processing requirements just exploded. In this case, a4 (Lock-On) may do better, since it’s smarter at staying with the subject. But, if the contrast between the subject and background is too low, even a4 won’t help!

The reason that Nikon lets us turn a4 off, is because in some instances we simply don't need it. YOU have to be the judge of when you need it and when you don't. There’s no magic here, just common sense. If the contrast between your subject and the background is not very good, NO COMPUTERIZED CAMERA CAN HANDLE what your eye EASILY can. There is no point in arguing about this. It’s simply the way computers work. They are very fast, but they are NOT as smart as a human brain. Anything that will sit and crunch math problems for hours with no complaint is not smart. And that’s what your camera’s computer is doing, processing math algorithms endlessly.

My advice to those who are having problems with autofocus is this. Examine your subject. If it looks a lot like the background, or is far enough away that it does not cover a sensor, your $5000 camera is going to have problems following it no matter what mode you put your autofocus in. That's why they left a MANUAL switch on our cameras.

Listen, the Nikon D2x and cousins have some of the best autofocus technology in the world. They’ve added all sorts of little improvements like Predictive Tracking and Lock-On, but they all have SERIOUS limitations in low-contrast environments.

YOU know this, but it’s great fun to complain and whine and feel sorry for ourselves. (I am including myself in this!) Maybe the D3x or D5x will have enough processing power to track a bird by the contrast between its eyeball and beak. In the meantime, we may have to help our cameras focus. (GASP!) It’s a partnership. If you spent $10,000 for your camera, it still would not focus and track low-contrast subjects very well. I think Nikon is to be commended for providing powerful technology that works MOST of the time. No one else is doing it better for the money.

Use the technology when it works well, and when it doesn't...turn it off and use your eye. How did we all survive without autofocus for so many years?


SUGGESTED AF MODES FOR VARIOUS SUBJECT TYPES

FOR STATIC SUBJECTS like nature shots, family (adult section) and slow moving wildlife try these settings:

  • AF-S (Single Servo AF)
  • S (Single Frame Mode for the Motor Drive)
  • Custom Setting a1 set to Focus Priority (forces ONLY in-focus shots)
© Steven Fisher (sfisher2)

FOR MOVING SUBJECTS like a flying bird, a race car or cycle, or even a bride and groom walking up the aisle, I will use the following:
  • AF-C (Continuous Servo AF)
  • CL (Continuous Low motor drive) or CH (Continuous High motor drive) according to the speed of the subject.
  • Dynamic Area AF
  • Custom Setting a4 set to ON (enabled Lock-On) TEST FOR YOURSELF!
  • Custom Setting a2 set to Focus Priority (forces ONLY in-focus shots)

© Jim Fenton (soonipi1957)


FOR SPORTS AND SOCIAL EVENTS SHOOTING where my human subject is moving around in a group of other humans:

  • AF-C (Continuous Servo AF)
  • CH (Continuous High motor drive)
  • Group Dynamic AF
  • Custom Setting a3 set to Pattern 1 Center Area
  • Custom Setting a4 set to ON (enabled Lock-On)
  • Custom Setting a1 set to Focus Priority (forces ONLY in-focus shots)
© John Cote


FOR MACRO SHOOTING OF STATIC SUBJECTS like flowers, trees, rocks, and such try these settings:

  • AF-S (Single Servo AF)
  • S (Single Frame Mode for the Motor Drive)
  • Custom Setting a1 set to Focus Priority (forces ONLY in-focus shots)

 

© Dave Metta

FOR FUN, CASUAL CANDID SHOOTING like at a party where I don’t want to think about my camera’s settings, but want great pictures:

  • AF-C (Continuous Servo AF)
  • S (Single Frame Mode for the Motor Drive)
  • Dynamic Area with Closest Subject Priority AF
  • Custom Setting a4 set to ON (enabled Lock-On)
  • Custom Setting a1 set to Focus Priority (forces ONLY in-focus shots)
© Macy Mills (Oskie_ Porshie)

These cover my most often types of shooting, and will probably cover most of yours.

 

CONCLUSION

The Nikon D2x is a very flexible camera, with four fairly easy to learn AF modes. Don’t stay stuck in Single Area AF mode, when there is so much more intelligence available in your Nikon D2x. Let it assist you by dynamically tracking your subject, keeping the focus locked on a subject, or taking over completely so you can have some fun.

Personally, after researching for this article, I am going to make much more use of the Dynamic Area AF mode of my camera, since it lets me control the AF sensor in use, but also allows my camera to react if my subject decides to start moving.

 

 

I think there’s enough good information here to at least start your experimentation with all the aspects of the Nikon Multi-CAM 2000 autofocus system. While this is fresh on your mind, go out and shoot a few hundred frames. Play with this flexible AF system, and you’ll find yourself really enjoying your mastery of it. At the very least, make your OWN intelligent decision on how to set Custom Setting a4, and other important custom settings.

Nikon has given us a real powerhouse of an image maker. Use it to the full by learning to use all the AF modes.

Keep on capturing time…

DD

 

 

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Darrell Young Darrell Young (DigitalDarrell)

Founding Member of the Nikonians writer Guild. Author of most of the NikoniansPress books. Donor Ribbon awarded for his generous support to the Fundraising Campaign 2014

Knoxville, USA
Team, 5965 posts

1 comment

Thomas A. Panfil (Renaissance Man) on October 4, 2014

This fine article has been around a while but It seems generally applicable to current Nikon DSLR cameras like the D4. It think it well worth studying. We could use a companion article on LiveView Focussing. One seemingly unavoidable irritant with the "Focus and Recompose" technique is that the recorded focus point is repositioned to a point other than that which was actually used once one recomposes. My compliments to DigitalDarrell. -- TAP

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