I don't think anyone wrote a book or a post telling how to use all the lenses, new and old, plus all the mountable accessories used on older Nikon bodies as they pertain to the D5100. There have been threads in this forum pertaining to individual lenses and add on accessories.
A good place to start however is the Nikon D5100 instruction manual on pages 197 to 199. Special attention should be given to the lenses like the fisheye lenses and 2.1cm which can only be mounted on Nikon's earliest film bodies which can lock the mirror in the up position both before and after the exposure. Any attempt to mount these lenses will damage the mirror. Don't use anything else on the list of Incompatible accessories and non-CPU lenses.
I have used a few non-AI lenses, not on the list, with success. However like all non-CPU lenses there is no exposure metering. This is also true of any Nikon manual focus TC's, extension tubes and bellows you add to the body. No metering. It will be like using the prism models of the F and F2 bodies. The advantage of the D5100, however, is you will get focus confirmation in the viewfinder and be able to focus using LiveView.
Note that when mounting the PB6 and also the PB4 that the body will need to be mounted in the vertical position because the body grip will interfere with the bellows rails. After mounting vertically it can then be swung to the horizontal position without interference. I don't know about the older bellows. I also have never used non-AI extension tubes so I can't comment on them. I do use the Kenko tubes with the contacts for my AF and AFS lenses. I also use the Kenko Pro 300 TC's for all my lenses that cannot accept the Nikon AFS compatible TC's like the TC-14E II.
Non-AFS AF lenses will need to be manual focused however since they have a built in CPU the metering will work fine.
You must have some particular items in mind to ask your question. If you complete your profile in the equipment listing we can give you a more precise answer.