The 18-55mm DX Nikkors are actually pretty good performers - it won't be easy to get much better quality from another lens within your budget.
The first two lenses you list are the same; there is only one 18-105mm Nikkor. It has greater range than your 18-55mm, and has VR (it's not clear whether your kit lens is the VR version), but in terms of image quality it's not a big improvement.
There is no 17-80mm Nikkor. The AF-S DX 16-85mm f/3.5-5.6G VR is the closest to that range, and is probably the best of the Nikkors it its price bracket. The 18-70mm (which is discontinued) lacks VR but might be a slight improvement on your 18-55mm.